The limited number of decent jobs continues to be a strong push factor for migration from Afghanistan. Efforts to alleviate this problem are hindered by the country’s widespread poverty, high population growth, particularly among the younger working age population, volatile security situation, drought conditions and reliance on illicit crops.
Bangladesh faces a high unemployment rate, and as a result, labour migration serves as an important livelihood option for many Bangladeshis.
Bhutan is predominately a migrant-receiving country, as very few Bhutanese migrate abroad. The Bhutanese labour force is reluctant to do manual jobs due to low wages and a negative stigma attached to this type of work.
India has long been an important source of highly skilled migrants (both professionals and students), particularly to developed countries, making ‘brain drain’ an area of concern.
Islamic Republic of Iran
The geographic location of the Islamic Republic of Iran lends itself to its position as a country of origin, destination and transit of mixed migration flows.
Demand for workers in industries, such as construction and tourism, skill shortages and higher wages are pull factors for migrant workers, which mainly come from neighbouring countries.
Migration from Nepal to India dates back to the provision of free movement under the Indo-Nepal Treaty of Peace and Friendship of 1950. Due to the long and open border between the two countries, cross‑border movements often remain unrecorded.
Slow economic growth, high unemployment, inflation and domestic instability comprise the main push factors for labour migration from Pakistan.
Sri Lanka is the only country in South and South-West Asia that has net out-migration, low fertility and a shrinking population in the 15–39 age group. If out-migration, especially of young people, continues to be high, Sri Lanka is likely to suffer labour shortages in the long run.
International migration in Turkey reflects the country’s geographic position between Europe and Asia. Generally, people from Turkey migrate to the West, especially Europe. At the same time, Turkey has become increasingly linked with Asia through migration.
Country profiles on international migration, including key migration-related statistics, recent migration trends relevant to the country and recent policy developments.
Eight key issues related to international migration in South and South-West Asia.
Database on annual labour migrant outflows based on administrative data records from national ministries that handle labour migration.
Social Development Division
UN ESCAP, UN Building, 6th Floor,
Rajdamnern Nok Avenue,
Bangkok 10200 Thailand
FAX: (662)288-1030; (662)288-1009; (662)288-3031