Key Points

  • The limited number of decent jobs continues to be a strong push factor for migration from Afghanistan. Efforts to alleviate this problem are hindered by the country’s widespread poverty, high population growth, particularly among the younger working age population, volatile security situation, drought conditions and reliance on illicit crops.
  • Remittance flows tend to go through informal channels due to limited financial infrastructure in rural areas and higher returns compared to formal channels.
  • Inadequate border controls, widespread poverty, embedded cultural factors and increasingly sophisticated and well-funded transnational crime networks contribute to the trafficking of persons, particularly women and children.