Bangladesh is primarily a labour-sending country, but some incoming migration flows take place, due in part to the porous borders and cultural affinities with neighbouring countries in the region. However, data on in-migration to Bangladesh remain limited.

Bangladesh hosts refugees belonging to an ethnic minority from Myanmar, known as the Rohingya. In the early 1990s, more than 250,000 people belonging to this ethnic minority entered Bangladesh. The Government of Bangladesh recognized Rohingya as refugees and created 22 camps. Since then, about 236,000 Rohingya have been repatriated and to date only two camps remain, the Kutupalong Camp and the Nayapara Camp, with a total of population of 28,000. Besides the registered refugees, an estimated 200,000–400,000 Rohingya have crossed into Bangladesh in the past two decades and settled predominantly in the south-east of the country bordering Myanmar (UNHCR 2007).