According to the ICRMW, the main obligations for origin countries are to provide information on conditions of admission and remunerated activity; to give the right to emigrate and return; to regulate and monitor recruitment agencies; to assist migrants in the resettlement and reintegration process; and to provide overseas voting rights. Crucial obligations for sending countries are pre-departure information campaigns and training sessions, monitoring of workers abroad and the imposition of sanctions on brokers and recruiters operating illegally.15 Under the current institutional arrangements in many countries, this is a difficult task. The ratification and implementation processes of any United Nations convention are complex undertakings and the governmental budgets and expert staff assigned to such matters are often limited.
In addition, the sheer number of private recruitment agencies, and the allegedly high level of collusion between government circles and recruitment agencies obstruct any serious efforts to regulate and monitor out-migration from the perspective of migrants’ protection.
Another serious obstacle to ratification, as expressed by government officials in a study conducted in 2003, is the misgiving of losing out on the regional job market as host countries might be disinclined to employ foreign workers who would be perceived as too ‘rights conscious’. This concern particularly affects countries of origin which highly depend on a small number of destination countries and the majority of whose migrants are mainly low-skilled workers (Piper and Iredale 2003).
15 See www2.ohchr.org/english/law/cmw.htm.